Data from a multiple baseline design conducted by Saddler, Behforooz, & Asaro, (2008). The variables are as follows:

  • case Student identifier

  • measure Factor indicating the outcome measure (writing quality, T-unit length, number of constructions)

  • outcome Value of outcome measure.

  • time. Measurement occasion.

  • treatment. Factor indicating the treatment phase.


A data frame with 124 rows and 5 variables


Saddler, B., Behforooz, B., & Asaro, K. (2008). The effects of sentence-combining instruction on the writing of fourth-grade students with writing difficulties. The Journal of Special Education, 42(2), 79-90. doi:10.1177/0022466907310371


Hedges, L. V., Pustejovsky, J. E., & Shadish, W. R. (2013). A standardized mean difference effect size for multiple baseline designs across individuals. Research Synthesis Methods, 4(4), 324-341. doi:10.1002/jrsm.1086