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vcovCR returns a sandwich estimate of the variance-covariance matrix of a set of regression coefficient estimates from a gls object.


# S3 method for gls
vcovCR(obj, cluster, type, target, inverse_var, form = "sandwich", ...)



Fitted model for which to calculate the variance-covariance matrix


Optional expression or vector indicating which observations belong to the same cluster. If not specified, will be set to getGroups(obj).


Character string specifying which small-sample adjustment should be used, with available options "CR0", "CR1", "CR1p", "CR1S", "CR2", or "CR3". See "Details" section of vcovCR for further information.


Optional matrix or vector describing the working variance-covariance model used to calculate the CR2 and CR4 adjustment matrices. If not specified, the target is taken to be the estimated variance-covariance structure of the gls object.


Optional logical indicating whether the weights used in fitting the model are inverse-variance. If not specified, vcovCR will attempt to infer a value.


Controls the form of the returned matrix. The default "sandwich" will return the sandwich variance-covariance matrix. Alternately, setting form = "meat" will return only the meat of the sandwich and setting form = B, where B is a matrix of appropriate dimension, will return the sandwich variance-covariance matrix calculated using B as the bread. form = "estfun" will return the (appropriately scaled) estimating function, the transposed crossproduct of which is equal to the sandwich variance-covariance matrix.


Additional arguments available for some classes of objects.


An object of class c("vcovCR","clubSandwich"), which consists of a matrix of the estimated variance of and covariances between the regression coefficient estimates.

See also


if (requireNamespace("nlme", quietly = TRUE)) {

  data(Ovary, package = "nlme")
  Ovary$time_int <- 1:nrow(Ovary)
  lm_AR1 <- gls(follicles ~ sin(2*pi*Time) + cos(2*pi*Time), data = Ovary, 
                correlation = corAR1(form = ~ time_int | Mare))
  vcovCR(lm_AR1, type = "CR2")

#>                    (Intercept) sin(2 * pi * Time) cos(2 * pi * Time)
#> (Intercept)          1.0319747        -0.25050263        -0.28914347
#> sin(2 * pi * Time)  -0.2505026         0.31620081         0.02677139
#> cos(2 * pi * Time)  -0.2891435         0.02677139         0.16709681